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Grain that’s used for milling flour comprises 3 parts.
- A protective skin layer. This is commonly referred to as ‘bran’ in wheat.
- A seed core, from which a new plant can grow.
- A starchy endosperm, essentially flour.
The grain is ground to release the flour held under the skin.
Flour that is high in gluten holds its shape well when baked. For this reason, hard or high gluten grain flour is commonly found in bread.
Flour that is soft, or low in gluten, tends to be applied to cakes, pastries for the purpose of a finer crumb.